s40795-016-0062-x.pdf 842,60KB
1000 Titel
  • Designing low-cost “heart healthy bread”: optimization using linear programing and 15-country comparison
1000 Autor/in
  1. Wilson, Nick |
  2. Nghiem, Nhung |
  3. Ryan, Sian |
  4. Cleghorn, Christine |
  5. Nair, Nisha |
  6. Blakely, Tony |
1000 Erscheinungsjahr 2016
1000 Art der Datei
1000 Publikationstyp
  1. Artikel |
1000 Online veröffentlicht
  • 2016-04-18
1000 Erschienen in
1000 Quellenangabe
  • 2:23
1000 Copyrightjahr
  • 2016
1000 Lizenz
1000 Verlagsversion
  • |
1000 Ergänzendes Material
  • |
1000 Publikationsstatus
1000 Begutachtungsstatus
1000 Sprache der Publikation
1000 Abstract/Summary
  • BACKGROUND: Bread is an important component of the diet in many countries and provides needed nutrients but also typically too much of other nutrients e.g., sodium. We therefore aimed to use linear programing to determine the optimal design of low-cost “heart healthy bread” (HHB) and to compare the results with commercial breads in 15 countries. METHODS: Optimization using linear programing focused on achieving set loaf prices (at NZ$1.5 and $3) and for a range of minimal sodium levels. Then within those constraints, levels of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) were maximized, then dietary fiber, and then polyunsaturated fatty acids. Data from New Zealand (NZ) was used for the HHB designs and comparison nutrient and price data came from breads in 15 high-income countries. RESULTS: The optimized loaf costing NZ$1.50 in ingredients (HHB$1.5) was superior to the commercial white loafs in three out of the eight heart health nutrient categories. The optimized loaf that was high in linseed and cost NZ$3 in ingredients (HHB$3), was nutritionally superior to the commercial loafs with seeds/nuts in six out of the eight heart health categories (i.e., in terms of sodium, potassium, fatty acid ratio and fiber). In terms of value-per-weight, a commercial white loaf from the UK was slightly cheaper than the HHB$1.50 loaf (at US$0.07 vs US$0.10 per 100 g loaf). But compared to the other seed/nut loafs, the HHB$3 loaf was the best value at US$0.17 per 100 g, vs a mean of US$0.85 per 100 g across international comparators. CONCLUSIONS: This proof-of-concept study suggests it is possible to design breads that are nutritionally superior to commercially available breads from a heart health perspective, as well as being lower cost. Such HHB designs could be promoted by health agencies and utilized in conjunction with a government-funded bread voucher system for those at high risk of cardiovascular disease.
1000 Sacherschließung
lokal Bread design
lokal Sodium
lokal Alpha-linolenic acid
lokal Fiber
lokal Cardiovascular disease
lokal Linear programing
lokal Saturated fat
lokal Optimization
1000 Fachgruppe
  1. Medizin |
  2. Ernährungswissenschaften |
1000 Fächerklassifikation (DDC)
1000 Liste der Beteiligten
1000 Förderer
  1. Health Research Council of New Zealand |
1000 Fördernummer
  1. 10/248
1000 Förderprogramm
  1. Burden of Disease Epidemiology, Equity and Cost-Effectiveness
1000 Dateien
1000 Förderung
  1. 1000 joinedFunding-child
    1000 Förderer Health Research Council of New Zealand |
    1000 Förderprogramm Burden of Disease Epidemiology, Equity and Cost-Effectiveness
    1000 Fördernummer 10/248
1000 Objektart article
1000 Beschrieben durch
1000 @id frl:6411364.rdf
1000 Erstellt am 2018-11-22T15:00:58.444+0100
1000 Erstellt von 218
1000 beschreibt frl:6411364
1000 Bearbeitet von 122
1000 Zuletzt bearbeitet Thu Jan 10 10:53:32 CET 2019
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1000 Vgl. frl:6411364
1000 Oai Id
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1000 Sichtbarkeit Metadaten public
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