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1000 Titel
  • Accelerated Development of COVID-19 Vaccines: Technology Platforms, Benefits, and Associated Risks
1000 Autor/in
  1. Wagner, Ralf |
  2. hildt, eberhard |
  3. Grabski, Elena |
  4. Sun, Yuansheng |
  5. Meyer, Heidi |
  6. Lommel, Annette |
  7. Keller-Stanislawski, Brigitte |
  8. Müller-Berghaus, Jan |
  9. Cichutek, Klaus |
1000 Erscheinungsjahr 2021
1000 Publikationstyp
  1. Artikel |
1000 Online veröffentlicht
  • 2021-07-06
1000 Erschienen in
1000 Quellenangabe
  • 9(7):747
1000 FRL-Sammlung
1000 Copyrightjahr
  • 2021
1000 Lizenz
1000 Verlagsversion
  • |
  • |
1000 Publikationsstatus
1000 Begutachtungsstatus
1000 Sprache der Publikation
1000 Abstract/Summary
  • Multiple preventive COVID-19 vaccines have been developed during the ongoing SARS coronavirus (CoV) 2 pandemic, utilizing a variety of technology platforms, which have different properties, advantages, and disadvantages. The acceleration in vaccine development required to combat the current pandemic is not at the expense of the necessary regulatory requirements, including robust and comprehensive data collection along with clinical product safety and efficacy evaluation. Due to the previous development of vaccine candidates against the related highly pathogenic coronaviruses SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, the antigen that elicits immune protection is known: the surface spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 or specific domains encoded in that protein, e.g., the receptor binding domain. From a scientific point of view and in accordance with legal frameworks and regulatory practices, for the approval of a clinic trial, the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut requires preclinical testing of vaccine candidates, including general pharmacology and toxicology as well as immunogenicity. For COVID-19 vaccine candidates, based on existing platform technologies with a sufficiently broad data base, pharmacological–toxicological testing in the case of repeated administration, quantifying systemic distribution, and proof of vaccination protection in animal models can be carried out in parallel to phase 1 or 1/2 clinical trials. To reduce the theoretical risk of an increased respiratory illness through infection-enhancing antibodies or as a result of Th2 polarization and altered cytokine profiles of the immune response following vaccination, which are of specific concern for COVID-19 vaccines, appropriate investigative testing is imperative. In general, phase 1 (vaccine safety) and 2 (dose finding, vaccination schedule) clinical trials can be combined, and combined phase 2/3 trials are recommended to determine safety and efficacy. By applying these fundamental requirements not only for the approval and analysis of clinical trials but also for the regulatory evaluation during the assessment of marketing authorization applications, several efficacious and safe COVID-19 vaccines have been licensed in the EU by unprecedentedly fast and flexible procedures. Procedural and regulatory–scientific aspects of the COVID-19 licensing processes are described in this review.
1000 Sacherschließung
gnd 1206347392 COVID-19
lokal clinical trials
lokal vaccine development
lokal marketing authorization
lokal SARS-CoV-2
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